George, Prince of Wales (1762-1830), later George IV. By Mather Byles Brown (1761-1831) via Royal Collection, London, U.K.
The decision to make Prince George the Regent took a lot of political debate. After nearly two and a half months of political wrangling, the British government agreed to grant the title of Prince Regent on George. The Act of Parliament was finally passed by a commission in the House of Lords on February 5th 1811 and the Prince was formally sworn in as Regent at Carlton House the next day. He continued to rule as Regent until 1820 when, on his father’s death, he assumed the title George IV and reigned until his own death in 1830.
The British Regency was the period from 1811-1820. King George III was deemed mad and unfit to rule so his son became his proxy, the Prince Regent, or Prinny to his close friends. This was the situation when Jane Austen was alive. The Regency Era was famous for its beautiful clothing as well as the magnificent buildings erected and furnished in the ‘Regency Style’ under orders from the extravagant Prince Regent.
A portrait from 1810-1814 of Rudolph Ackermann, shop owner and founder of ‘The Repository Of Arts’ magazine, The Strand, London. via National Portrait Gallery, London. Plus, an image of Ackermann’s premises in 1809. His ‘Repository of Arts, Literature, Fashion, Manufactures, etc.’ was published from 1809 to 1829 with images of Regency London, Regency furnishings and grand homes as well as beautiful fashion prints and descriptions every month. Ackermann originally supplied artists, amateur and professional, with supplies for watercolor painting. In 1799, he began manufacturing and selling his own watercolor paint blocks which were supplied by other colourmen, although at least three colors were his own mixture – Ackermann’s Green, White and Yellow. From 1817, his eldest son Rudolph Ackermann junior was responsible for the watercolor manufacturing. Ackermann also trained as a carriage designer. He began publishing prints and colour-plate books like ‘The Microcosm of London’ and ‘Doctor Syntax’ in the early 1800s.
The Repository of Arts was one the most popular magazines in Jane Austen’s time as it displayed everything ladies wanted to learn e.g. history, important country seats and houses in England, music, current events such as theatre plays, plus fashion plates and embroidery patterns. Ackermann’s shop in The Strand, London, was one of the fashionable places to shop during the Regency Era. The Repository also included poetry, travel reports, society reports and upcoming lectures. It also included serious subjects e.g. politics, legal matters, medicine and agriculture, a meteorological journal and details of the London markets. In 1817, the price of the magazine was 4 Shillings, so quite expensive for the time.
In the first issue, published for January 1809, Ackermann included an ‘introduction to the history of the useful and polite arts’ which said: “It is universally admitted, that to cultivate a taste for the arts, and an acquaintance with the sciences, is a pleasure of the most refined nature; but to do this without regard to its influence upon the passions and affections, is to ‘tear a tree for its blossoms, which is capable of yielding the richest and most valuable fruit.’ The cultivation of this taste may and ought to be subservient to higher and more important purposes: it should dignify and exalt our affections, and elevate them to the admiration and love of that Being who is the author of every thing that is fair, sublime, and good in nature.”
1807 Gentleman’s Everyday Outfit, French. Brown coat, high collared shirt, and vest simply tied, wit a cravat and a black hat and a cane. Brutus style hair cut of curled hair. Fashion Plate via Journal des Dames et des Modes, or Costume Parisien.
11811 Half-Mourning Dress, French. Black dress, high white neck ruffle, black hat with white trim and white shoes.
In November, 1810, Princess Amelia, youngest daughter of George III, died. At the end of 1810 full mourning of complete black would have been worn but by the beginning of 1811, half mourning would still have been to respect the loss of a royal family member. Half-mourning allowed touches of silver, grey, mauve and white to be added to a mostly black outfit and would be worn after the period of full mourning was ended, times depending on the relationship to the deceased person. Garments and accessories could either be trimmed with black, jet jewelry worn, black ribbons added, or a layer of black net or gauze added to a dress or hat.
Jane Austen and her family would have worn this type of outfit when mourning a relative or friend. However, as black dresses, black tunics, and black lace shawls were popular throughout the Regency years, it is often hard to decide what was definitely made for mourning and what was simply fashionable wear. Fashion Plate via Journal des Dames et des Modes, or Costume Parisien. https://books2read.com/SuziLoveFashion1810-1814
Definition Half or Slight Mourning: Allowed touches of grey and white to be added to full, or deep, mourning ensembles. Some lustre, or shine, was allowed in fabrics and accessories. After a time, mauve or deep purple could also be worn.
1819 January Two Fashion Plates By Dean and Mundy For Mourning: Winter Carriage and Evening Dresses. High-waisted carriage dress, cuffs edged with white lace and trimmed with gray frog closures, matching plumed hat and shawl. Empire style evening dress with short sleeves and wide neckline trimmed with scallops of white lace, skirt trimmed with white rosettes, evening upswept hairstyle. Fashion Plates Published by Dean and Munday, 1819, London.
Mourning wear was worn in Britain during the regency Era, firstly for Princess Charlotte who died in England on November 6th, 1817, or then for Queen Charlotte, wife of King George III and grandmother of Princess Charlotte, who died on November 17th, 1818. All the fashion magazines featured numerous outfits in black suitable for mourning, followed by many for half mourning in colors of grey, black with touches of white, and later mauve or lavender.
Black was worn for full mourning with various other colors were worn during the months of half mourning, including grey and mauve. However, as black dresses, black tunics, and black lace shawls were popular throughout the Regency years, it is often hard to decide what was definitely made for mourning and what was simply fashionable wear.
After the death of H.R. H. Princess Charlotte on November 7th, 1817, official court mourning was ordered. ‘The ladies to wear black bombazines, plain muslin or long lawn crape hoods, shamoy shoes and gloves, and crape fans. The gentlemen to wear black cloth without buttons on the sleeves or pockets, plain muslin or long lawn cravats and weepers, shamoy shoes and gloves, crape hat bands, and black swords and buckles.’ Two months later, a change of mourning attire was ordered.
The Viscount’s Pleasure House Book 1 Irresistible Aristocrats By Suzi Love. Lady Chrissie Wellsby and her two country friends research dozens of rogues before selecting the notorious Viscount Hawkesbury, owner of London’s most exclusive and expensive brothel, to educate them in erotic seduction. #HistoricalRomance #EroticRomance https://books2read.com/suziloveTVPH
Four Times A Virgin By Suzi Love. Book 2 Irresistible Aristocrats Series. A tortured duke reunites with a mysterious lady to search for answers from their intertwined pasts and expose those who orchestrated the evil that scarred them both. She’ll do anything to protect her younger sisters from the torments she endured and he’s desperate to make amends. books2read.com/suziloveFTAV
Lord Mallory, attends first courtesan’s ball in years to appease concerned friends. Though mortified that Lord Mallory unmasks her, Lady Armstrong doesn’t regret their night together. For himself, Lord Mallory was past caring if he was seen at a courtesan’s ball, even stark naked, but he’d never risk Lady Lillian’s reputation. But will Brenton, Lord Mallory, still treat her as his friend’s little sister? http://books2read.com/suzilovePHB
1817 February Pelisse, or Redingote, English. Carriage dress of white poplin with a deep blond flounce. Blue levantine pelisse or walking dress, or Redingote in France, shorter than the dress and edged with floss silk. Coburg cap of black velvet turns up on one side in front and is lined and edged with blue satin. The head-dress worn with it has a profusion of white ostrich feathers. Ruff is of plain blond, edged with narrow white satin ribbon, and a pink Indian scarf over the shoulders. An ermine muff, gloves and slippers of blue kid, complete the elegant dress. Fashion Plate via John Belle’s La Belle Assemblée or, Bell’s Court and Fashionable Magazine, London.
Definition Coat or Redingote Or Pelisse: Long fitted outdoor coat worn over other garments for warmth. French word developed from English words, riding coat.
1800-1810 ca. Yellow Kid Women’s Slippers, British. The sort of shoes Jane Austen and her female friends and family would have worn. Kid shoes bound in kid over white linen, very pointed toes, fronts trimmed with yellow silk tassel fixed by small steel buckle, back of shoe faced with yellow kid printed with pattern in black, heel of kid and leather. via Manchester Galleries ~ manchestergalleries.org
Shoes in the early 1800s were flat or low heeled and occasionally decorated with a bow or floral embellishments and it wasn’t until the 1820s that square, rather than rounded or pointed toes became fashionable. Made of soft kid or cloth, these delicate shoes were flimsy and wore out quickly. There was often no difference between a left or right shoe, so when one slipper had a hole it was easily replaced. Slippers were often bought in multiples at a time so there were spares.
How did people travel in past centuries? What did they take with them to make their long journeys easier? Travel by road, ship, canal, or railway all took a long time and had dangers so people learned to prepare. And then, in the nineteenth century, road improvements, inventions, and scientific developments made travel more pleasurable. Travel and Luggage By Suzi Love History Notes Book 10 books2read.com/SuziLoveTravel
Horse Power To Steam. Various alternatives to horse power were tested in London’s streets during the 19th century. Steam powered road engines and trams proved too heavy and damaged the roads. Stationary steam engines were used to haul trams attached to a cable but these were only really effective on hills that we too steep for horses. There were also experiments with trams driven gas engines and battery electric power. but was successfully developed. Petrol engines were still primitive and unreliable in the 1890s. In 1900 the reliable horse still dominated the streets of London but new technology was to revolutionize road transport.
1807 Gentleman’s Blue Tailcoat, French. White breeches, black boots topped with large tan strip, black hat and a cane. Plate via Journal des Dames et des Modes, or Costume Parisien. French fashions and Georgian and Regency Era fashions from Great Britain were copied around the world. This is what men wore in the times of Jane Austen for city and country life.